Unveiling Uncharted 4

December 14th, 2014 — 10 Comments

Last weekend in Las Vegas at Sony’s inaugural Playstation Experience event we unveiled gameplay of Uncharted 4 to a cheering crowd of thousands. It was an amazingly tactile experience as game developers usually put videos out online and can only see the reaction from comments. Hearing the crowd roar when they realised it was live and ingame was incomparable; confirmed by an accidental drop into the abyss where we’d yet to create the death animation sequence. I hope the 15 minute video below shows the lengths to which the team has pushed the fuidity of movement and overall character fidelity – animating this guy for the last three quarters of a year has been a blast!

Later on, the character team gave a presentation on the Nathan Drake model and the level of fidelity they are achieving, from physicalised hair and clothing to shaders that render mud, water and sweat. At around the 50-minute mark you’ll get a glimpse of the 800+ poses we have at our disposal when animating Drake’s face, requiring animation controls that have been as much an exercise in usability as in displaying emotion.

On Photo-Realism In Games

August 4th, 2014 — 6 Comments

Below is an interview I gave a few months ago for a UK magazine on the topic of photo-realistic graphics that I have kindly been given permission to reprint. I provided an animator’s perspective as it also featured insights from developers working on racing games that are at the forefront of realistic mechanical rendering – something I hadn’t considered before. It would be interesting to know others’ thoughts on the matter, as it touches on that timeless classic, the Uncanny Valley.

Project Cars

From an animation perspective, how do you view the prospect of photo-realistic graphics?

I believe that years ago the game animation community realised it was something of a false god – that rather than realism we should instead be pushing for believability, (not realism), in our characters. It’s a lot easier to make a convincing performance with a character with exaggerated features when you can concentrate solely on acting instead of worrying about details such as the perfect movement of skin and muscle across a skull or the most accurate rendering of wetness in the eye. Ultimately it depends what kind of experience you’re hoping to achieve with your game. Assassin’s Creed simply wouldn’t work as a cartoony game, and the reverse is true for the Mario series.

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Well, that was an interesting E3 this year. For my part, I ran around the show floor and made executive decisions on which games are currently “bringing it” in terms of animation and character art. That’s always been my favourite part of the spectacle, showing where the bar is set for the coming year to know where we should be aiming. Then came the reaction to a tweet of mine calling out an argument I feel strongly about, (that of inclusiveness in games), which added fuel to the #womenaretoohardtoanimate hashtag.

Thankfully, this site allows me to elaborate further on the reasoning behind those 140 characters. But first, a qualification of the “2 days” estimation because, after all, this is a blog on video game animation. On reading comments in the aftermath it would appear many people online fell into one of two camps:
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Now at Naughty Dog

April 14th, 2014 — 20 Comments

Since moving to Canada almost a decade ago I’ve been making games that involve hundreds of characters with hours upon hours of systemic and open-ended narrative. Now I look forward to channeling all that energy into an altogether more intimate story and cast of characters. As of late February I am now based in sunny Santa Monica, California working with the talented guys and girls at Sony’s Naughty Dog studio on the next installment of the Uncharted series for Playstation 4.

Naughty Dog

When working at an art-centric studio such as Ubisoft Montreal I had been hard-pressed to find anywhere that takes video game animation as seriously as there, but I’ve long held Naughty Dog up as a titan in video game animation, ultimately being won over by their game-changing work on The Last of Us. It’s no understatement to say, in my opinion, that that game has set a new standard for tone and characterisation in video games.

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Animating The 3rd Assassin

February 11th, 2014 — 1 Comment

GDC 2014 is fast approaching, and the guys over at The ReAnimators Podcast have interviews with all the speakers at this year’s Animation Bootcamp. Here’s the write-up of my GDC 2013 talk, (available on the GDC Vault behind a paywall), on the approach we took in refreshing the animation of the Assassin’s Creed series for its third major outing.



Assassin’s Creed III was my first game after arriving at Ubisoft Montreal back in early 2010. I can’t tell you how fortunate someone like myself was to work on Assassin’s Creed as to me it has been a standard-bearer for animation since it’s initial release in 2007. Many people at the time told me that AC was the studio leader in animation, so with the position of animation director came a lot of responsibility – the pressure from above to not screw up what came before was immense.

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It’s currently tapped for several game of the year awards so now is a good time to write up my notes on David Lam’s talk from the 2013 Montreal International Game Summit on the cinematic process of The Last of Us, which he also kindly gave at our studio later the same week.

David was tasked with supervising the animation for cutscenes on The Last of Us, where he said there was even more of an emphasis on story and characters than Uncharted. In particular, there was a strong focus on the relationship between the lead characters, primarily the 180 degree transformation of Joel’s attitude towards Ellie over the course of the game. While being mindful of sensitive story elements, David jumped straight in by showing everyone present the final scene of the game – (note: there are story spoilers below also). This scene, he said, best illustrated the team’s mantra of “Grounded Realism”, with a down to earth, life-like approach to performances in order to create empathy.

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Watch_Dogs Mocap Process

January 13th, 2014 — Leave a comment

Now that the busy holiday period is over, here are my belated notes from my colleague Colin Graham’s 2013 Montreal International Games Summit presentation entitled Are We Ready For Animation On The Next Generation Of Consoles? – Lessons Learned From Developing Watch_Dogs.

Colin started with a series of disclaimers, the first being that as the game was due to be released the week of the talk before being delayed we were getting an edited version. Still, there was much to take away despite his self-professed “controversial” approach to motion-capture pipelines, posing it as a counter-point to Brent George’s talk I attended the previous year on how we must bend mocap to our will. That said, he agreed there is no real right or wrong way to do anything, and often “counter-intuitive” thinking leads to innovation.

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I found some great rotoscoped frames from the development of the original Prince of Persia, showing creator Jordan Mechner putting younger brother David through the paces almost three decades ago. The poses and actions are so iconic I can remember them even without the accompanying video below.


Released in 1989, the game was way ahead of it’s time for animation and certainly foreshadowed what we would later accomplish with motion capture in 3D. I especially like the excitement you can read in Mechner’s journal entry from the time as he begins to realise the potential of this breakthrough approach:
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Aaron Gilman On Iron Man 3

October 16th, 2013 — 3 Comments

The other month we were very fortunate to have Iron Man 3 animation supervisor Aaron Gilman in the Ubisoft Montreal studio to take us through some of the trials and triumphs in bringing the third Iron Man to the big screen. While his 13 years of experience contain such VFX powerhouses as The Matrix and Avatar, it was an especially interesting talk for many present as he is best known within the studio as the former animation director of one of my all-time favourite Ubisoft games, Rainbow Six Vegas.


Project Overview

New Zealand-based Weta Digital were brought onto Iron Man 3 so late in the process that some of the other 13 VFX vendors had already finished. This left them just 3.5 months to create some of the more complicated shots on the show, for which they came up with the smart and graceful solutions he presented during the talk. Aaron was one of a handful of supervisors on a team capping out at 30 animators in full production, within a team of around 100 artists in total. Their task, to handle the 422 shots comprising two distinctive types of challenge:  Continue Reading…

Seamless Mocap Cycles Tutorial

September 11th, 2013 — 28 Comments

This tutorial was originally featured in issue 58 of 3D Artist Magazine and is kindly republished with their permission. The brief was for a 17-step tutorial to accompany an interview I gave, but the technique really only takes a few minutes once you get the hang of it, allowing you to quickly pump out mocap cycles as a starting base to work with. Importantly, these are just the first few minutes of a LOT of work required to make them final – that’s where the magic comes in.


To achieve Assassin’s Creed’s style of animation we require a vast amount of animation cycles and transitions, bringing the Assassin to life for even the simplest ground movement before we layer on cutting-edge technology such as reactive physics and IK. This tutorial will take you through the steps required to easily make a flawlessly-cycling run cycle from motion capture using a relatively quick and simple looping technique that can be used on any kind of motion where seamless cycling is required. For this example we’re using Autodesk Motionbuilder but the same technique can be applied in any software that has the ability to blend sections of animation with each other.

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